References

-  Measurement techniques:

  • Ferm M. (1991) A Sensitive Diffusional Sampler . IVL publication B-1020 , Swedish Environmental Research Institute Box 47086, 402 58 Goteborg, Sweden.
  • Palmes, E.D.,Gunnison, A.F., DiMattio, J.and Tomczyk, C. (1976) Personal Sampler for Nitrogen Dioxide. Am.Ind.Hyg.Assoc. J., 37, 570-577.
  • Environmental Consulting and Research Unit , Passive Gas Samplers ,Ayers. G.P. 11 Nov 1994 (CSIRO) Australia
  • Al Ourabi, H., Etude expérimentale de gaz azotés, du dioxyde de soufre et de l’Ozone à l’échelle des ecosystems de l’Afrique tropicale: Application à l’estimation des dépôts secs gazeux dans le cadre du réseau IDAF, pHD thesis, pp1-243, Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, Novembre 2002.

-  Wet Deposition:

  • Galy-Lacaux, C., Laouali, D., Descroix, L., Gobron, N., and Liousse, C. 2009. Long term precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote dry savanna site in Africa (Niger), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1579-1595.
  • Mphepya J.N., C. Galy-Lacaux, J.P. Lacaux, G. Held, and J.J. Pienaar. 2006. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in Kruger National Park, South Africa, J. Atmos. Chem., 53, 169-183.
  • Yoboué V., C. Galy-Lacaux, J. P. Lacaux and S. Silué. 2005. Rainwater Chemistry and Wet Deposition over the Wet Savanna Ecosystem of Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire), J. Atm. Chem. 52, 117-141.
  • Sigha-Nkamdjou L., Galy-Lacaux, C., Pont, V., Richard, S., Sighoumnou, D., and Lacaux, J. P. 2003. Rainwater chemistry and wet deposition over the equatorial forested ecosystem of Zoétélé (Cameroon), J. Atmos. Chem., 46, 173-198.

-  Biogeochemical cycles:

  • Delon, C., C. Galy-Lacaux, A. Boone, C. Liousse, D. Serça, M. Adon, B. Diop, A. Akpo, F. Lavenu, E. Mougin, and F. Timouk 2009. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 14189-14233.
  • Delon C., Reeves C.E., Stewart D.J., Serça D., Dupont R., Mari C., Chaboureau J.P., Tulet P. 2008. "Biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from soils - impact on NOx and Ozone over West Africa during AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Experiment): modelling study.", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2351-2363.
  • Dentener, F., Drevet, J., Lamarque, J. F., Bey, I., Eickhout, B., Fiore, A. M., Hauglustaine, D., Horowitz, L. W., Krol, M., Kulshrestha, U. C., Lawrence, M., Galy-Lacaux, C., et al. 2007, Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, No. 4.

-  Atmospheric gas concentrations:

  • Adon, M., C. Galy-Lacaux, C. Delon, V. Yoboué, C. Liousse, H. Al Ourabi, L. Dungall, B. Diop, L. Sigha, F. Lavenu, E. Mougin. 2010. Long term measurements of nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, nitric acid in Africa using passive samplers. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 7467-7487.
  • Mougin E., P. Hiernaux, L. Kergoat, M. Grippa, et al., 2009, The AMMA-CATCH Gourma observatory site in Mali: Relating climatic variations to changes in vegetation, surface hydrology, fluxes and natural resources, J. of Hydrology, AMMA-CATCH Special issue, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.06.045.
  • Josipovic M, Annegarn J. Kneen A.M, Piketh S.J. Pienaar J.J. A regional scale Passive Monitoring Study of SO2, NO2 and Ozone in South Africa, IGACtivities Newsletter, n° 36, July 2007.
  • Martins, J.J., Dhammapala, R.S., Lachmann, G., Galy-lacaux, C. and Pienaar, J. J., 2007, Long-term measurements of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, nitric acid and ozone in southern Africa using passive samplers, S. Afr. J. Sci., 103, 336-342.
  • Zunckel, M., Venjonoka, K., Pienaar, J J, Brunke, E-G, Pretorius O, Koosialee A, Raghunandan A and van Tienhoven A.M, 2006. Surface ozone over southern Africa: Synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project. Atmos. Env., 38. 911-924.

-  Global model validation:

  • Williams, J.E., M.P.Scheele, P.F.J. van Velthoven, J-P Cammas, V. Thouret, C. Galy-Lacaux and A Volz-Thomas. 2009. The Influence of biogenic emissions from Africa on tropical tropospheric ozone during 2006: a global modeling study. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5729-5749.
  • Tost, H, P. Jöckel, A. Kerkweg, R. Sander and J. Lelieveld. 2007. Global Cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2733-2757.

-  Urban Air Pollution in Africa:

  • Assamoi E. and C. Liousse. 2010.A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002 , Atmos. Env., 44, 3985-3996 .
  • Junker C. and Liousse C., 2008,"A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860–1997", Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 4897–4927.

-  Modelling: Emissions, transports and climatic impacts:

  • Liousse C., B. Guillaume, J.M. Grégoire, M. Mallet, C. Galy, A. Poirson, F. Solmon, V. Pont, A. Mariscal, L. Dungal, R. Rosset, V. Yoboué, X. Bedou, D. Serça, A. Konaré, C. Granier, A. Mieville, 2009, African Aerosols Modeling during the EOP-AMMA campaign with updated biomass burning emission inventories, Atmos. Phys. Chem., 10, 9631–9646.
  • Monks, P.S., C. Granier, S. Fuzzi, et al, 2009, Atmospheric Composition Change – Global and Regional Air Quality, Atmos. Env., 33, 5268-5350.
  • Solmon F., Chuang P.Y., Meskhidze N., Chen Y., 2009. "Acidic processing of mineral dust iron by anthropogenic compounds over the north Pacific Ocean.", J. Geophys. Res.. 114, D02305.
  • Andreae, M. O., D. Hegg, J. Feichter, S. Kloster, Z. Levin, C. Liousse, L. Radke, and P. Stier, 2008, Sources and nature of atmospheric aerosols, in Scientific assessment of the effects of aerosols on precipitation, edited by Z. Levin & W. Cotton, World Meteorological Organization.
  • Konaré A., Zakey A.S., Solmon F., Giorgi F., Rauscher S., Ibrah S., Bi X., 2008, "A regional climate modeling study of the effect of desert dust on the West African monsoon.", J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12206.
  • Mallet M., Pont V., Liousse C., Gomes L., Pelon J., Osborne S., Haywood J., Roger J.C., Dubuisson P., Mariscal A., Thouret V., Goloub P., 2008, "Aerosol direct radiative forcing over Djougou (northern Benin) during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis dry season experiment (Special Observation Period-0)", J. Geophy. Res. 113, D00C01.
  • Solmon F., Mallet M., Elguindi N., Giogi F., Zakey A., Konaré A., 2008, "Dust aerosol impact on regional precipitation over western Africa, mechanisms and sensitivity to absorption properties.", Geophy. Res. Lett., 35, L24705.
  • Guillaume B., C Liousse, R. Rosset, H. Cachier, B. Bessagnet, P.V. Velthoven et N. Poisson, 2007, ORISAM-TM4 : Global modelling of internally mixed size-resolved inorganic/organic aerosols with a focus on carbonaceous components. Tellus B, 9, 283-302.
  • Pal J.S., Giorgi F., Bi X., Elguindi N., Solmon F., Gao X., Rauscher Et Al. S.A., "Regional climate modeling for the developing world : The ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET.", 2007, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 1395.
  • Solmon F., Giorgi F., Liousse C., 2006, "Aerosol modeling for regional climate studies : Application to anthropogenic particles and evaluation over a European / African domain.", Tellus B, 58B, 51-72.
  • Liousse, C., Michel, C., Bessagnet, B., Cachier, H. and Rosset, R., 2005. 0D-Modelling of Carbonaceous Aerosols over Greater Paris focusing on the organic particle formation. J. Atmos. Chem., 51, 207-221.

-  Other reports:

  • Liousse C. and C. Galy-Lacaux, Urban Pollution in Western Africa, in press in IGBP letter, 2009.
  • Galy-Lacaux, C. and G. Held, Executive Report on National workshop on deposition and impacts of air pollutants in Southern Africa, Eskom Conference Center, Midrand, 17 & 18 October 2005.